The role of vitamin D in oncology: where are we?

Michele Milella

Oncology Section, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, School of Medicine and Integrated University Hospital (AOUI) of Verona

DOI 10.30455/2611-2876-2021-4e

Preclinical studies, using in vitro and in vivo models, show that vitamin D (vitD) is capable of inhibiting neoplastic transformation and progression by inducing cell differentiation, inhibiting proliferation of the neoplastic clone, and performing multiple other biological activities of an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic nature.

From a clinical point of view, circulating levels of vitD and its active metabolites have been linked to improved survival of cancer patients. Multiple randomised trials have been conducted, albeit with conflicting results, on the possible impact of vitD supplementation on human cancer incidence, mortality and survival.

This short review of the literature is intended to take stock of the latest preclinical and clinical data and the possible role of vitD in oncology.

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